- Product Code :BK10172
- Size :8.75" x 5.75" x 1.80"
- Weight :650 gm.
- Author :Kishori Saran Lal
- ISBN-10: 8121502276
- ISBN-13: 978-8121502276
- Publisher :Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd
- Edition :1980
- Cover :Hard Cover
- Language :English
- Pages :372
Twilight of the sultanate is a political, social and cultural history of the Sultanate of the Delhi from the invasion of Timur to the conquest of Babar (1398-1526). This period of a century and a quarter presents the spectacle of a curious contradiction of unceasing political upheavals and great cultural achievements. It is not only a coherent sequence of history and continuity that the author portrays in this volume, but the very atmosphere of those turbulent and disorderly days. Timur’s capture of Delhi vivifies the terror of the times, amidst which Timur, who was sixty-three, ‘immersed himheslf in pleasure and enjoyment.’ ‘No one ever achieved a victory over Bahlul Lodi,’ and yet he could calmly tell his restive Afghan nobles: ‘If you do not think me worthy of the Station (of Monarch), you may choose loved to have the learned Ulema about him, but drank wine in secret ‘to keep himself in health.’ And Babur’s keen intellect rightly noted that India ‘has masses of gold and silver,’ a fact in many ways responsible for her chequered history.
“In the political field the first half of the 15th century was a period of decay; the second half of upheavals, but in the cultural field it was an age of sustained progress,” says the author. This period witnessed great development in architecture, music, education and social reform. “there was continuous progress of synthesis in spite of all conflicts, political, social, intellectual.” Muriel edition of the Twilight of the sultanate rightly observes: ‘Even more interesting are the final observations of the author on the emergence of the integrated Indian culture.’ As Professor Lal say: “Babur appreciated it and Akbar worked upon it.”
In brief, Twilight of the Sultanate “ is a painstaking and scholarly book, which Indian medievalists will find Indispensable.”
the Time Literary Supplement, London
professor K. S. Lal (born 26 February 1920) graduated in 1939, obtaining the Dr. Tara Chand Gold Medal in History. He took his M.A. in 1941 and D. Phil. in 1945, all from the University of Allahabad.
Starting his career as part-time Lecturer in the same university (1944-45), he joined the Central Provineces (now Madhya Pradesh) Educational Serviece in 1945 and taught at Morris College Nagpur; Robertson College, Jabalpur; And Hamidia College, Bhopal he was Sevretary, Madhya Pradesh Itihasa Parishad and Convener, Regional Records Survey Committee, Madhya Pradesh. In 1958 he presided over the Medieval History Section of the Indian History Congress and in 1975 of the Punjab History Congress. In 1978 he Was President of the Rajasthan History Congress.
Dr. Lal was Reader in History at the University of Delhi from 1963 to 1972. He was professor and Head of the Department of History, University of Jodhpur from 1973 to 1979. At present He is Professor and Head of the Department of History at University of Hyderabad. He has participated in many Seminars and Conference in India and abroad and has published a number of historical monographs.
Back of the Book
A History of Sufism in India
IN TWO VOLUMES
The present work seeks to study sufism as a psycho-historical
phenomenon, the author seeing it as a potential force to meet
social and political challenges produced by protracted political upheaval, associated with autocratic oppression and economic deprivation. It is divided into two volumes.
The first volume outlines the history of Sufism before it was firmly established in India and then goes on to discuss the principal trends in sufi developments there from the thirteenth to the beginning of the sixteenth century. Chronologically it is concerned with sufi history from the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate to the beginning of the Mughal empire. Naturally it lays great emphasis on the Chishtiyya, Suhrawadiyya, Firdaosiyya and Kubrawiyya orders, but the contribution made by qalandars and legendary and semi-legendary saints have also not been neglected. A detailed discussion of the interaction of medieval Hindu mystic traditions and Sufism shows a unique polarity between the intolerant rigidity of the orthodox and the flexibility of the sufis in India.
The fifteenth century also saw the introduction to India of the Shattari and the Qadiri orders these orders, along with the Naqshbandis and Chishtis, will be discussed in the second volume. This will also outline the impact of Indian sufis on the contemporary Islamic world, concluding with the influence of modernism on Sufism in India.
Mainly concentrating on the development of Indian sufi orders and their internal conflicts and internal threats, the two volumes deal with only the most important personalities of each order, their basic teachings and their contributions to religious, mystical, social, economic and political thoughts. They are not intended to be a directory of Indian sufis.
Vol. 1, Early Sufism and its History in India 1600 A.D. Rs. 150
Vol. 2, From Sixteen Century to Modern Times. In press
The present work contains thirty-three articles of the authors on some unique, interesting and significant coins and sigils which throw flashes of light on various aspects of the history, culture, religion, art, economy, trade and commerce, science and technology of the people of India in different periods of its long history. It is for the first time that minuscule copper punch-marked coins from Vidisha have been brought to light which acquaint us of the local economy during the later half of the first millennium BCE. The uniface cast copper coins collected from eastern Malwa and Khandesh region establish relationship of the area with the Deccan which has yielded similar coins. Coins of the city-state of Hathodaka indicate the role the city-states played in the development of trade and commerce in the Narmada valley during the early centuries before the commencement of the Common Era. The silver and copper coins from Eran-Ujjayin» region indicate the continued use of the white metal and corroborate the popularity of Vaishªavism in central India evidenced earlier by the discovery of an elliptical temple plan and the Garu©a-dhvaja pillar inscription at Vidisha. The indigenous gold coin confirms the use of this valuable metal for indigenous coinage before the Kush¹ªas. Another coin takes back the antiquity of the auspicious Hindu mythological art-motif of cow suckling the calf to circa third-second century BCE. New Mitra and S¹tav¹hana coins add to our existing knowledge by bits while Kalachuri and inscribed Vishªukuª©in type coins betray the existence of the scions of these dynasties or their allies in central India. Indo-Sassanian, Param¹ra and Y¹dava type coins from the region reveal the political developments of the medieval period while a piece with erotic theme tells of the use of a hitherto unknown motif. The darb of Akbar betrays the erring human nature and a coin-die of the emperor confirms the existence of a mint-town. The tetra-lingual silver seal of Nabha bears evidence to the use and popularity of various languages in the Malwa region of Punjab and the secular outlook of its rulers. All the articles thus help us in our understanding of our history in a better way to enlighten our future course.
Devendra Handa is the recipient of Sir Mortimer Wheeler Prize, Maulana Azad and Archaeological Centenary Memorial medals (1964), Lowick Memorial Grant of the Royal Numismatic Society, London (1992 and 2007), Pandit Bhagwanlal Indraji Medal of the Indian Coin Society (2007) and Nelson Wright Medal of the Numismatic Society of India (2010). He was felicitated with Life-time Achievement Award by the NSI and Indian Coin Society in 2008 at Indore and has recently been honoured with Karmayogi Samman by the Haryana Institute of Fine Arts (2012). After his retirement from the Panjab University, Chandigarh he enjoyed Fellowship of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla (2000-03), Senior Fellowship (Numismatics) of the Ministry of Culture, GOI, New Delhi (2003-05) and Senior Academic Fellowship of the ICHR, New Delhi (2009-11). He has authored Osian (Delhi, 1984), Studies in Indian Coins and Seals (Delhi, 1985), Jaina Bronzes from Hansi (New Delhi-Shimla, 2002), Buddhist Remains from Haryana (New Delhi, 2004), The Epic Pilgrimage – Pehowa (New Delhi, 2005), Early Indian Coins from Sugh (New Delhi, 2005), Sculptures from Haryana (2006) Tribal Coins of Ancient India (New Delhi, 2007), Coins and Temples (Mumbai, 2007), and Sculptures from Punjab (New Delhi, 2011).
Dr. Major M.K. Gupta, a medical practitioner by profession, served the Indian army during 1972-99. He is an avid collector and a collection of dated coins of each of the six hundred years from AH 818 earned him a place in the Limca Book of Records in 2004. He has a very vast collection not only of coins which range from the earliest to the present day ones but also of all sorts of antiques and curios which include 1500 seals and sealings from fourth to nineteenth century in Prakrit, Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu, English and Panjabi languages written in Brahmi, Persian, Arabic, Roman, Devanagari and Gurumukhi scripts. A collection of about 120 coin-dies and nearly 600 images of Ganesh in various metals and stones are his proud possessions. He has been exhibiting his coins and other objects at various places and has won many awards including a gold medal of the Oriental Numismatic Society of London in International Coin Exhibition held at Nagpur in 1990. He has also contributed articles to various numismatic publications.
This book mainly deals with the development of art in this region mainly under Traikutakas and also talks about the motivating factors behind such specific developments in art and architecture. There is an attempt made to assess the contribution of Traikutakas to this change and continuity as the ruling dynasty of the region.
Born on 22nd March 1977, Dr. Suraj A. Pandit is working as Assistant Professor and Head of the Department of Ancient Indian Culture and Archaeology at Sathaye College, Mumbai. He is also Chairperson of Board of Studies in Ancient Indian Culture and Archaeology, University of Mumbai as well as member of Academic Council, Faculty of Arts, Board of University Teaching and Research in the faculty of Arts, Research and Recognition Committee in Ancient Indian Culture and Archaeology in University of Mumbai.
His specialization is Indian Buddhism and Buddhist architecture and archaeology. He did his Doctoral thesis on 'Kanheri Caves', a group of caves in Mumbai representing Western Indian Buddhist Rock-Cut Architecture, under the guidance of Prof. A. P. Jamkhedkar. He had received the K. T. Telang Research Fellowship in Indology of Asiatic Society of Mumbai in the year 2006-07. He has been delivering lectures for various courses under Mumbai University as well as in Pune University. He has total 19 paper published on his name in International as well as National journals.
He was working a visiting faculty for Post Graduate courses in History in SNDT University while he is a recognized teacher of the University of Mumbai. He has been in teaching Under Graduate and Post Graduate students of University of Mumbai and SNDT University, Mumbai for last 12 years. He is actively involved in the creating awareness among masses about the preservation of Heritage and delivered numerous public lectures on different monuments and heritage of Mumbai.
He has worked as consultant for the Ajanta Site Management Plan and Sisupalgar Site Management Plan. He had organized various seminars and workshops on Indology, Epigraphy, Buddhism and Heritage Conservation.
Presently he is working as Coordinator on a 'Research Project' on critical Editing of Manuscript in the possession of Asiatic Society of Mumbai, funded by Government of India. He has completed several projects funded by ICHR and American Institute of Indian Studies in the field of Epigraphy and Art History.
Echoes of the Golden Age (Art of the early 6th Century CE under Traikutakas)
(Dr. Agam Prasad Felicitation Volume) (set in Two Volumes) Editors: Prashant Srivastava Sanjaya Kumar Mahapatra
Dr Agam Prasad is a renowned social worker and Managing Director of Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi. He was born on 13.10.1949 in the family of Shri Swami Prasad, a renowned advocate. After obtaining his Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Rajasthan, he did his Master’s in Political Science from Meerut University. He wrote his PhD dissertation in History under the guidance of Prof Agam Prasad Mathur, the renowned historian and former Vice-chancellor of Agra University, Agra. He also holds a Post-graduate Diploma in Museology from Bhopal University and MD (H) from Premier Medical College, Chandigarh. All this goes to show his love for knowledge, and his interest in higher education and heritage management. He has dedicated his life to the service of Indology. He has himself authored Rajasthan ki Prachina Rajanitika Samsthaen (Hindi), acted as co-editor of Felicitation Volumes (Triratna, Dimensions of Indian Art, Vajapeya, and Svasti-sri), and published over a dozen research papers. He is the Honorary General-Secretary of the Commonwealth Historians’ Society, and life Member of Indian Association for the Studies of Conservation of Cultural Property, Indian Archaeological Society, Museums Association of India, ICOM, INTACH, Epigraphical Society of India, Plane Name Society of India, Art and Culture Society of India, etc. He is a widely travelled man. The Indian Astro-Palmists Association of India awarded him the title of Hasta Rekha Martanda, and a silver medal.
Prof Prashant Srivastava (BA Honours, MA, PhD, D.Litt) is Head of the Department of Ancient Indian History and Archaeology, University of Lucknow. After he had received his Bachelor’s degree, Master’s degree, both with a first class first, from the University of Lucknow, he was awarded a research fellowship by the U.G.C., and his PhD dissertation on joint, commemorative, and victory coins of ancient India has been widely acclaimed. His DLitt dissertation on foreign elements in ancient Indian coins was also highly appreciated by his learned examiners. He is the recipient of four gold medals—one for BA Honours, two for MA, and one for DLitt. He is the author of twelve books, including Joint Coin-types of Ancient India, Aspects of Ancient Indian Numismatics, Art Motifs on Ancient Indian Coins, The Apracharajas, and Gleanings in Ancient Indian Numismatics, and co-editor of History and Heritage (Essays in Honour of Prof K K Thaplyal). His other publications include about sixty research papers, and over two dozen popular articles. His Encyclopaedia of Indian Coins is the fruit of his endeavours in connection with a major research project, awarded to him by the U.G.C.
Dr Sanjaya Kumar Mahapatra is Principal in Janata College, Kuhuri (Odisha). He has had an illustrious career, devoted to the study of the history, archaeology, and culture. He is the recipient of a number of prestigious awards and honours, like the Rashtriya Gaurava Award of the India International Friendship Society, and the Jyotishvidya Vachaspati Award of the Astrological Foundation, Dinalipi, Behrampur (Odisha). He has recently published Mahisasuramardini in Art, Iconography and Cult Practices, which embodies his PhD dissertation. Besides, he has to his credit, about seventy research papers and articles, published in reputed journals and magazines. He is well-versed in yoga, tantra, and astrology. He was initiated on the path of kirya-yoga by the divine grace of Sri Paramahamsa Hariharananda Giri, the beloved kriya-yoga guru.
The present work describes the material and moral progress which India had achieved during the paramount sovereignty of the Gupta emperors in the fourth and fifth centuries a.d. It traces the origin and rise of the ruling family to Srigupta (240-280 a.d.) and concludes with the reign of Kumaragupta III (543 a.d.). It discusses the spirit of the age and the various trends in the sphere of Religion, Economy, Society, Education, Administration, Art and Architecture. It seeks to bring together all the facts and data derivable from different sources--literary, epigraphic and numismatic, the accounts of foreign visitors, particularly of the Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien who has left a detached and valuable record of India`s civilization during the reign of Chandragupta II. Herein we get an accurate picture of India`s golden age, the growth of her various institutions, her activities of expansion, colonization and her intercourse with Indonesia, China and other countries. The work is divided into sixteen chapters. It has an index of proper names and an addenda on the hoard of new Imperial Gupta coins discovered at Bayana in Bharatpur. The work is very interesting and instructive and is designed to meet the requirements of the academic student of history and the general reader alike.
Preface to First Edition:
This work was written in the last days of my teaching at the Lucknow University and suggested by its needs. Its title indicates its scope and limits. It deals only with imperial Gupta history, and not with that of the later Guptas. It seeks to bring together in a concise and condensed form all the facts and data which are derivable from different sources, literary, epigraphic or numismatic, but are treated in separate specialized works. It will thus be found useful to both students and teachers of its subject, who will find in one handy volume all its materials collected and utilized. A special feature of the work is its account of the moral and material progress of the country achieved in the spacious times of the Gupta Emperors, and of the various institutions, social, economic, and administrative in which that progress was embodied. It gives a picture of India's civilization in some of her best days, the days of national freedom and planning, of the beginnings of her expansion, and intercourse with Indonesia and China. It is hoped that it will thus have a larger and more general appeal beyond the narrow circle of academic students of history. Another special feature of the work is its Illustrations, some of which, especially those of coins, are based on line-drawings to bring out more clearly their details which are somewhat obscure or defaced in the originals. The Illustrations will thus serve as useful aids to the study of the coins. Some of the line-drawings I owe to the distinguished Artists, Messrs. Nanda Lal Bose, Asit Kumar Haldar, and P. Neogy, to whom I am grateful. There have been at places repetitions of the same material where it had to be presented from different points of view, and in its various aspects. Such repetitions have not been ruled out.
The method of transliteration adopted in the work is shown in the following examples: Krishna, Vamsa, Lichchhavi.
The publication has been delayed by the prevailing difficulties of printing, and by my deputation by Government to an FAO Conference at Washington (U.S.A.) in October 1946.
I owe acknowledgements to my following pupils who helped me in copying out my MS for the press: Abinas Srivastava, M.A., M. C. Joshi, M.A., Dina Nath Tandon. M.A., and B. Subba Rao, M.A. My thanks are due to Mr. Raja Ram Jayasval, M.A., for the Index.
I am grateful to my friend, Dr, Benjamin Schwartz, Ph.D., of the Indic Section of the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C., U.S.A., for his kind help in correcting the final proofs of the work at Washington.
Preface to Second Edition:
It is gratifying to the Author to find that a work which is somewhat technical in its character with its necessary documentation, literary, epigraphic and numismatic, should call for a second edition in such a short time. Some necessary additions have been made on the basis of new numismatic material derived from the Bayana hoard of Imperial Gupta gold coins recently found in Bharatpur State.
The Author is greatly indebted to the line drawings and other suggestions made by Sri Sivaramamurti, M.A., Superintendent of Archaeology, Indian Museum, Calcutta, in the preparation of the addendum.
The Author records his deep sorrow at the sad and untimely death of his old pupil Sri Raja Ram Jayaswal, M.A., who prepared the Index which remains unchanged in the Second Edition.
Preface to Third Edition:
That a third edition of the work has been called for is gratifying to the author. My thanks are due to the Publishers for their readiness to meet the demand and for the improved get-up which will now make the book more attractive to its readers.
- Product Code :BK8787
- Size :9.1" x 1.7" x 6.1"
- Weight :730g.
- Author :Manoshi Bhattacharya
- ISBN :8129114011, 978-8129114013
- Publisher : Rupa Publications India
- Edition :January 1, 2009
- Cover :Paperback
- Language :English
- Pages :555
The Royal Rajputs-Strange Tales and Stranger Truths is also a human tale of scandal and intrigue, moustaches and harems. Custom, tradition and memories born in those early days all have their reasons. So do the locations of battles and forts.
AUTHOR OF THE BOOK
Manoshi Bhattacharya, who began her medical career in the Indian Navy, is a practising general physician in Gurgaon. She is also the author of Charting the Deep, the history of the survey and mapping of Indian waters
This book highlights the intellectual and diplomatic distinction of K. Natwar Singh. From a very young age he came into intimate contact with world-renowned personalities. As he reveals:’While working on this book,the thought struck me that the Natwar Singh of these letters was obviously someone that had been transmuted out of the indubitably common metal that he is, into a superior product by the alchemy of the minds of indulgent and warmhearted well-wishers. Indira Gandhi, R.K.Narayan, Han Suyin, E.M. Forster, Nargis Dutt et al figure in the list of these distinguished well-wishers. These letters tell us as much about the writers as they reflect on the engaging personality of the recipient.
AUTHOR OF THE BOOK
K. Natwar Singh was born in 1931. He was educated at Mayo College, Ajmer, Scindia School, Gwalior, St. Stephen’s College, Delhi and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. He joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1953 and resigned from it in 1984, thereafter he joined the Congress Party. At present, he is a member of the Congress Working
The opulent, sometimes scandalous, private lives of the Mughals of India is brought to life in this book. The text cover svarious aspects of their lifestyles, such as their food and drinks; clothes and ornaments; perfumes and incense; addictions and intoxicants, amusements and pastimes; rituals of circumcision; marriage and harem life. This well-written book with colour illustrations and photographs will be a delight to the lay reader aswell as the serious scholar. Titled as it is, the book deals with the little known, but much scandalised, private life of the Mughals who ruled from 1526, practically to 1803 when the British captured Delhi and Agra, their nerve-centres, from them. This included theperiod ofthe reign of three great Mughals, viz. Akbar (1556-1605), Jehangir(1605-27) and Shah Jahan (1628-58), of little more than acentury.They possessed not only fabulous wealth, but also thevision tofound a culture-State, in the real sense of the term.Planting itin the soil as naturally as a banyan tree, they institutionalized their life, as much as their government. The former, almost completely shrouded in mystery, offers one of themost interesting aspects of medieval Indian history and culture.
AUTHOR OF THE BOOK
Prof. R. Nath (b. 1933), has worked at more than 50 ancient and medieval sites of India and with his extensive knowledge of Sanskrit and Persian, has authored several books, monographs, research papers and articles.
"This work relates to the (erstwhile) Central and Western Rajput States of India. It embodies the results of scholarly investigation into the ethnology of Rajputs, their religious and social practices, their festivals and rites, their legal and political institutions and the merits and demerits of their characters. Herein we get a real portrait of the different aspects of Rajput life: their loyalty, devotion, gallantry, chivalry as also the instability of their character, their outbreaks of passion, fears, occasional faithlessness of their chiefs and allies and, above all, their addiction to drugs.
The work is divided into three volumes: each volume being sub-divided into books and chapters. Vol I deals mostly with the Geography of Rajasthan, the History of the Rajput tribes and the feudal system of their states. Vol II contains the Annals of Marwar, Bikaner, Jaisalmer and other cities of Rajasthan. Vol III comprises the annals of Amber, Haravati, Bundi and describes Shaikhawat Federation, and contains personal narrative from Udaipur to Kheroda. It has an appendix divided into seven sections and exhaustive general index.
Interspersed with several illustrations, this book is remarkable for its enlightening introduction and exegetical notes."
Princess Samyukta loved him from afar, and when Prithviraj Chauhan claimed her for his own, defying the wrath of an implacable foe, their happiness was complete. Victorious in love and war, Prithviraj Chauhan was soon to discover that success came with a terrible price - trials, treachery and tragedy. What happened next? Read the tale of the legendary warrior who lives on in the hearts of those who remember his unmatched valor and timeless heroism."
ISBN : 978-81-7320-140-0
Edition : 2014
Language : English
Size & Pages : Size 23, cm, pp. 134, Illus., Col.
Publisher : Agam Kala Prakashan
Format : Hardbound
1 History and Archaeology
2 Growth of Architecture in Medieval India
3 Urban Punjab : Historical Context
4 Routes, Monuments and Historical Remains
5 Structures and Religion
6 Water Architecture
7 Recreation, Authority and Constructed Space
Although some aspects of the medieval bhakti movements are known or have been viewed by the historians from their own angles of vision, much remains to be known, understood and interpreted. The present volume, issued on the occasion of the Quincentenary of Mahaprabhu Sri Caitanya, is an attempt to understand a little more of the medieval bhakti movements of India. The contributors to the volume who have enthusiastically agreed to participate in this project are all specialists in their own fields and their valuable papers are expected to throw new light on many hitherto unknown or known features of the great historical movement, the far-reaching consequences of which are very much lively in the heart of the Indian masses even today. The contributors to this volume are Bimanbehari Majumdar, Niharranjan Ray, G.S. Chhabra, Manorama Kohli, G.V. Saroja, J.C. Jain, M.S. Ahluwalia, H.A. Qureshi, Manjula Bhattacharyya, Uma S. Deshpande, P.S. Mukharya, B.D. Gupta, Hafiz Md. Tahir Ali, N. Jagadesan, R. Champakalakshmi, S.K. Pathak, N. Subrahmanian, R. Meena, K.K. Kusuman, N.H. Kulkarnee, Prabhat Mukherjee, S.N. Sharma, Sarat Chandra Goswami, S. Dutta, N.N. Acharya, Bhaskar Chatterjee, Neal Delmonico, Sachin Majumdar, David Kopf and Pranabananda Jash. A detailed bibliography containing list of books and articles used by the contributors in preparing their papers and also other works pertaining to the bhakti concept has also been supplied. This handy volume has been edited by N.N. Bhattacharyya with an informative introduction. Printed Pages: 424.
About the Author:
Prof. Narendra Nath Bhattacharyya teaches in the Department of Ancient Indian History and Culture, University of Calcutta. Thought religious history in his forte he works at ease in diverse branches of ancient Indian history and civilization.
It is owing to the grace of Mahaprabhu Sri Caitanya that we have been able to bring out the present volume on the occasion of his quincentenary commemoration in our humble capacity. We express our sincere gratitude to the scholars-all eminent in their own fields -who contributed their learned articles to this volume at our request, to the editor who devoted all his time and energy to make the project a grand success, to Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi who came forward to publish the work on our behalf and to those who helped us in many ways. At the same time we place on record our deep sorrow at the death of two of the contri- butors-Prof. Prabhat Mukherjee of Bhuvaneswar and Prof. Sarat Chandra Goswami of Guwahati-and our appreciation of the services rendered by them to the cause of this volume.
While stylistical investigations are the basis of this book, Indian sculpture is dealt with as conditioned by the Indian craftsman. His consciousness makes him known to himself as a part of nature and his work is the form of this 'naturalism'. Its degree and aspects vary according to the levels of his consciousness.