Siva Sutras: The Yoga of Supreme Identity

Siva Sutras: The Yoga of Supreme Identity

$30.00

About the Book


Siva Sutras are considered to be a revealed book of the Yoga : supreme identity of the individual self with the Divine.


Dr. Jaideva Singh has studied the book with the help of his guru Swami Laksmana Joo, the sole surviving exponent of this system in Kashmir and has provided an English translation of the Sutras together with the commentary of Ksemaraja.


The subject matter is arranged as under:
Each Sutra is given in Devanagari as well as in Roman Script. Then the meaning of every word of the Sutra is given in English, followed by a translation of the whole Sutra. This is followed by the Vimarsini Commentary in Sanskrit and its English translation, copious notes on important and technical words and a running exposition of the main ideas of the Sutra.


A long introduction, together with an abstract of each Sutra, throws a flood of light on the entire system of Saiva Yoga. A glossary of technical terms and index are appended for the convenience of the reader.


Introduction


THE MAIN SOURCES OF THE NON-DUALISTIC SAIVA SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY AND YOGA
The Saiva system of Philosophy and Yoga is generally known as Agama. The word Agama means a traditional doctrine or system which commands faith.


The Saiva system,. in general, is known as Siva-sasana or Sivagama, The non-dualistic Saiva system of Kashmir is known as Trika-Sasana or Trika-sastra or Rahasya-sampradaya. The words sasana and sastra are very significant. Both contain the root sasa which means discipline. Sasana or Sastra means teaching containing rules for discipline. A Sastra or Sasana in India never meant merely an intellectual exposition of a particular system. It certainly expounded the fundamental principles of reality but at the same time laid down on the basis of the principles certain rules, certain norms of conduct which had to be observed by those who studied the particular Sastra. A Sastra was not simply a way of thought but also a way of life. The Saiva philosophy of Kashmir is generally called 'Trika Sastra, because it is philosophy of the triad - (1) Siva (2) Sakti (3) Nara- the bound soul or (1) para - the highest (2) parapara - identity in difference and (3) apara - difference.


The literature of the Trika system of Kashmir falls into three categories, viz., (1) the Agama Sastra, (2) the Spanda Sastra and (3) the Pratyabhijna Sastra.


Agama Sastra :


Agama Sastra is considered to be revelation by Siva. It lays down both the principles and practices of the system. Among the works belonging to the Agama category may be mentioned the following Tantras.


Malinivijaya or Malinivijayottara, Svacchanda, Vijnana Bhairava, Mrgendra, Netra, Rudra- Yamala, Siva-Sutras, etc. Most of these taught generally the dualistic doctrine. The most important Agama of the Trika system was known as the Siva-Sutras.


The importance of this work consists in the fact that it was revealed to counter the effects of dualism. It is generally known as Sivopanisat-sangraha - a compendium containing the secret doctrine revealed by Siva. This was revealed to Vasugupta.


There are three theories regarding the revelation of the Siva- Sutras to Vasugupta.


1. Kallata in the Spanda-vrtti says that Siva taught the Siva- Sutras in a dream to Vasugupta who was living on Mahadeva mountain in the valley of the Harvan stream behind the Shalimar garden near Srinagara.
2. Bhaskara says in his Varttika on the Siva-Sutras that they were revealed to Vasugupta in a dream by a Siddha - a perfected semi-divine being.
3. Ksemaraja, in his commentary Vimarsini, maintains that Siva appeared to Vasugupta in a dream and said, "On the Mahadeva mountain, the secret doctrines are inscribed on a piece of stone. Collecting the doctrines from there, teach them to those who deserve grace." On waking up, Vasugupta went to the place and by a mere touch the particular stone turned up and he found the Siva-Sutras inscribed on it.


The particular rock is still called Samkaropala, and it is said that the Sutras were inscribed on it. (See the plate No. I). The rock is there, but there is no trace of the sutras.


The following are the common points in all the theories regarding the discovery of the Siva-Sutras.
1. There was no human author of the Sutras. They origi- nated from Siva.
2. They were revealed to Vasugupta.


Whether they were revealed to him by Siva in a dream or by a Siddha or they were found on a rock at the instance of Siva are matters which are irrelevant to the main issue of the revela- tion.


We know from Rajatarangini that Kallata flourished in the reign of king Avanti-Varman of Kashmir, Avanti-Varman reigned in the 9th Century A.D. Vasugupta who had discovered the Siva-Sutras was the guru (teacher) of Kallata. He must have flourished either in the last part of the 8th Century or the beginning of the 9th Century A.D. This must have been therefore, the date of the discovery of the Sutras.

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About the Book


Siva Sutras are considered to be a revealed book of the Yoga : supreme identity of the individual self with the Divine.


Dr. Jaideva Singh has studied the book with the help of his guru Swami Laksmana Joo, the sole surviving exponent of this system in Kashmir and has provided an English translation of the Sutras together with the commentary of Ksemaraja.


The subject matter is arranged as under:
Each Sutra is given in Devanagari as well as in Roman Script. Then the meaning of every word of the Sutra is given in English, followed by a translation of the whole Sutra. This is followed by the Vimarsini Commentary in Sanskrit and its English translation, copious notes on important and technical words and a running exposition of the main ideas of the Sutra.


A long introduction, together with an abstract of each Sutra, throws a flood of light on the entire system of Saiva Yoga. A glossary of technical terms and index are appended for the convenience of the reader.


Introduction


THE MAIN SOURCES OF THE NON-DUALISTIC SAIVA SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY AND YOGA
The Saiva system of Philosophy and Yoga is generally known as Agama. The word Agama means a traditional doctrine or system which commands faith.


The Saiva system,. in general, is known as Siva-sasana or Sivagama, The non-dualistic Saiva system of Kashmir is known as Trika-Sasana or Trika-sastra or Rahasya-sampradaya. The words sasana and sastra are very significant. Both contain the root sasa which means discipline. Sasana or Sastra means teaching containing rules for discipline. A Sastra or Sasana in India never meant merely an intellectual exposition of a particular system. It certainly expounded the fundamental principles of reality but at the same time laid down on the basis of the principles certain rules, certain norms of conduct which had to be observed by those who studied the particular Sastra. A Sastra was not simply a way of thought but also a way of life. The Saiva philosophy of Kashmir is generally called 'Trika Sastra, because it is philosophy of the triad - (1) Siva (2) Sakti (3) Nara- the bound soul or (1) para - the highest (2) parapara - identity in difference and (3) apara - difference.


The literature of the Trika system of Kashmir falls into three categories, viz., (1) the Agama Sastra, (2) the Spanda Sastra and (3) the Pratyabhijna Sastra.


Agama Sastra :


Agama Sastra is considered to be revelation by Siva. It lays down both the principles and practices of the system. Among the works belonging to the Agama category may be mentioned the following Tantras.


Malinivijaya or Malinivijayottara, Svacchanda, Vijnana Bhairava, Mrgendra, Netra, Rudra- Yamala, Siva-Sutras, etc. Most of these taught generally the dualistic doctrine. The most important Agama of the Trika system was known as the Siva-Sutras.


The importance of this work consists in the fact that it was revealed to counter the effects of dualism. It is generally known as Sivopanisat-sangraha - a compendium containing the secret doctrine revealed by Siva. This was revealed to Vasugupta.


There are three theories regarding the revelation of the Siva- Sutras to Vasugupta.


1. Kallata in the Spanda-vrtti says that Siva taught the Siva- Sutras in a dream to Vasugupta who was living on Mahadeva mountain in the valley of the Harvan stream behind the Shalimar garden near Srinagara.
2. Bhaskara says in his Varttika on the Siva-Sutras that they were revealed to Vasugupta in a dream by a Siddha - a perfected semi-divine being.
3. Ksemaraja, in his commentary Vimarsini, maintains that Siva appeared to Vasugupta in a dream and said, "On the Mahadeva mountain, the secret doctrines are inscribed on a piece of stone. Collecting the doctrines from there, teach them to those who deserve grace." On waking up, Vasugupta went to the place and by a mere touch the particular stone turned up and he found the Siva-Sutras inscribed on it.


The particular rock is still called Samkaropala, and it is said that the Sutras were inscribed on it. (See the plate No. I). The rock is there, but there is no trace of the sutras.


The following are the common points in all the theories regarding the discovery of the Siva-Sutras.
1. There was no human author of the Sutras. They origi- nated from Siva.
2. They were revealed to Vasugupta.


Whether they were revealed to him by Siva in a dream or by a Siddha or they were found on a rock at the instance of Siva are matters which are irrelevant to the main issue of the revela- tion.


We know from Rajatarangini that Kallata flourished in the reign of king Avanti-Varman of Kashmir, Avanti-Varman reigned in the 9th Century A.D. Vasugupta who had discovered the Siva-Sutras was the guru (teacher) of Kallata. He must have flourished either in the last part of the 8th Century or the beginning of the 9th Century A.D. This must have been therefore, the date of the discovery of the Sutras.

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